Learn English: Common Mistakes and Confusing Words in English – BY and Until
Lots of you have those dreaded deadlines to meet….You have been working until midnight and your boss needs the document by tomorrow or else! You have been asking about the difference between BY and UNTIL. Not easy! Your English tutor will attempt to explain!
Simple tips for using ‘by’ and ‘until’
Both until and by indicate “any time before, but not later than.”
- Until tells us how long a situation continues. If something happens until a particular time, you stop doing it at that time.
- They lived in a small house until September 2003.
(They stopped living there in September.)
- I will be away until Wednesday.
(I will be back on Wednesday.)
We also use until in negative sentences.
For example: Details will not be available until January.
(January is the earliest you can expect to receive the details.)
- If something happens by a particular time, it happens at or before that time. It is often used to indicate a deadline.
- You have to finish by August 31.
(August 31 is the last day you can finish; you may finish before this date.)
- We also use by when asking questions.
Will the details be available by December?
(This asks if they will be ready no later than December.)
We all know that English is a complex and fluid language. There are lots of little words with subtle differences. I hope these blogs help you with your English lessons and understanding. Your English tutor is here is help!
Learn British English? Let’s look at American and British English!
“England and America are two countries divided by a common language.”
–George Bernard Shaw
|Many of the lexical differences between the two dialects are a result of the rapid technological development that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries.
As new machines were invented, new words were created to describe the machines.
Because of the distance between Great Britain and the United States, there was little or no attempt to standardize the vocabulary.
That’s why British and American words for automobiles, airplanes, and railroads are different. A few examples for automobiles and driving are below. The British word is given first, followed by the American.
bonnet – hood
boot – trunk
car park – parking lot
flyover – overpass
lorry – truck
|12 Essential Differences You Should Know|
At the weekend
Have got (preferred)
She wrote to him
Got (past of get)
Learnt, burnt, earnt (preferred/common)
From (date) to (date)
Mr, Mrs, Dr etc.
| American English
On the weekend
She wrote him
Gotten (past of get)
Learned, burned, earned
(Date) through (date)
Mr., Mrs., Dr., etc.
|Bathroom, washroom, restroom